Slovak Legal Vocabulary

Learning legal vocabulary in Slovak can be an essential skill for professionals dealing with Slovak legal documents, expatriates living in Slovakia, or students of law and language. This article aims to explore some of the key legal terms and phrases in Slovak, their meanings, and how they are used in context. Understanding this vocabulary can significantly improve your comprehension and communication within the Slovak legal system.

Basic Legal Terms

In the realm of law, certain terms are foundational to understanding more complex concepts. Here are some of the basic legal terms in Slovak:

1. Zákon (law) – This is a fundamental term that refers to a system of rules that a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its members.
– “Podľa slovenského zákona je krádež trestným činom.”

2. Právo (right) – This refers to the legal entitlement or authority that individuals have under the law.
– “Každý občan má právo na spravodlivý súd.”

3. Právnik (lawyer) – A person who practices or studies law.
– “Právnik mi pomohol pri vypracovaní zmluvy.”

4. Súd (court) – The place where legal cases are heard and justice is administered.
– “Svedok vypovedal na súde.”

5. Obžaloba (prosecution) – The party in a legal case that accuses someone of a crime.
– “Obžaloba predložila dôkazy proti obvinenému.”

Contractual Terms

Contracts are a cornerstone of legal agreements in any jurisdiction. Here are some terms related to contracts in Slovak:

1. Zmluva (contract) – A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
– “Podpísali sme zmluvu o nákupe nehnuteľnosti.”

2. Podmienky (terms and conditions) – The details in a contract that specify the agreement’s requirements.
– “Je dôležité prečítať si podmienky zmluvy pred jej podpísaním.”

3. Porušenie zmluvy (breach of contract) – Occurs when one party fails to fulfill their duties as specified in the contract.
– “Dodávateľ mal porušenie zmluvy nesplnením dodacieho termínu.”

Criminal Law Vocabulary

Understanding terms related to criminal law is important for dealing with legal proceedings in criminal cases. Here are some crucial terms:

1. Trestný čin (crime) – An action that constitutes an offense and is punishable by law.
– “Krádež je považovaná za trestný čin.”

2. Obvinený (defendant) – A person or group accused of a crime in court.
– “Obvinený bol prepustený na kauciu.”

3. Svedok (witness) – A person who gives testimony in a court about what they know or have seen.
– “Svedok potvrdil, že videl obžalovaného na mieste činu.”

4. Rozsudok (verdict) – The decision made by a judge or jury in a court case.
– “Súd vyniesol rozsudok v prospech žalobcu.”

Property Law Terms

Dealing with properties involves specific legal terminology. Here are some terms associated with property law:

1. Nehnuteľnosť (real estate) – Property consisting of land or buildings.
– “Kúpil som nehnuteľnosť v Bratislave.”

2. Vlastníctvo (ownership) – The legal right to possess and use property.
– “Vlastníctvo pozemku bolo prevedené na nového majiteľa.”

3. Hypotéka (mortgage) – A legal agreement by which a bank lends money at interest in exchange for taking the title of the debtor’s property.
– “Vzali sme hypotéku na kúpu domu.”

By understanding and using these Slovak legal terms effectively, you can enhance your communication and comprehension within various legal contexts. Whether you are working in Slovakia, dealing with Slovak legal documents, or simply expanding your legal vocabulary in another language, these terms provide a solid foundation for your legal language skills.

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