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Expressions for Discussing Economics in Japanese

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Discussing economics can be challenging, especially when doing so in a language other than your mother tongue. For learners of Japanese, navigating the vocabulary of finance and economics is essential. Here, we’ll explore some key expressions to help you discuss economic concepts in Japanese like a pro.

経済 (けいざい – Keizai)
The term “経済” means “economics” or “economy.” It is a fundamental word that anchors many discussions about fiscal matters.
(Japan no keizai wa kyūsoku ni hatten shite iru.)
Japan’s economy is developing rapidly.

景気 (けいき – Keiki)
“景気” refers to the “business climate” or “economic conditions.” This term is useful when describing the overall health of the economy.
(Saikin no keiki no kaifuku wa odorokubeki hayasa da.)
The recent economic recovery is surprisingly fast.

インフレーション (いんふれーしょん – Infurēshon)
“Inflation” in Japanese is directly borrowed from English. It can be used when discussing the general increase in prices and the fall in the purchasing value of money.
(Infurēshon ni yotte, shōhisha no kaimono kagaku ga agatte imasu.)
Due to inflation, the shopping costs for consumers are rising.

デフレーション (でふれーしょん – Defurēshon)
The opposite of inflation, “deflation,” is also borrowed from English. It indicates a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.
(Defurēshon wa keizai seichō ni akueikyō o oyobosu koto ga aru.)
Deflation can sometimes have a negative impact on economic growth.

円高 (えんだか – Endaka) / 円安 (えんやす – Enyasu)
“円高” means “strong yen,” while “円安” describes a “weak yen.” These terms are pivotal when talking about the value of the Japanese currency in foreign exchange markets.
(Endaka ga tsuzuite iru tame, kaigai ryokō ga otoku ni natte iru.)
Since the yen is strong, overseas travel has become a good deal.
(Enyasu ni yori yushutsu gyōsha wa rieki o fuyasete iru.)
Due to the weak yen, exporters are able to increase their profits.

赤字 (あかじ – Akaji)
“赤字” means “deficit” and is often used in reference to budget and trade deficits.
(Kuni no yosan ga akaji ni natte iru.)
The country’s budget is in deficit.

黒字 (くろじ – Kuroji)
Conversely, “黒字” signifies a “surplus.” It can refer to budgets, trade, or other financial statements that reflect more income than expenditure.
(Kotoshi no kaikei wa kuroji o kiroku shita.)
This year’s accounting recorded a surplus.

GDP (ジーディーピー – Jī Dī Pī)
“GDP,” or Gross Domestic Product, is a standard economic indicator used worldwide, and its acronym is used in Japanese as well.
(Nihon no GDP wa sekai dai san’i desu.)
Japan’s GDP is the third largest in the world.

株式市場 (かぶしきしじょう – Kabushiki Shijō)
“株式市場” refers to the “stock market.” This term is crucial for discussing investments and the trading of company shares.
(Kabushiki shijō wa kyō, ōhaba ni sagatta.)
The stock market dropped significantly today.

By understanding and using these expressions, you’ll be equipped to discuss a variety of economic issues in Japanese. Whether it’s the state of the economy, market trends, fiscal policies, or currency fluctuations, these terms will serve you well in both casual and professional conversations. So next time you find yourself amidst a discussion on economics in Japanese, you’ll be ready to contribute meaningfully and confidently.

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