Mastering Spanish Grammar: A Comprehensive Guide to Adjective Endings

Spanish is a beautiful and expressive language with a rich grammatical structure. One of the most important aspects of Spanish grammar is the correct use of adjectives and their endings. In this comprehensive guide, we will dive deep into the world of Spanish adjective endings to help you master this crucial aspect of the language.

Understanding Adjective Agreement in Spanish

In Spanish, adjectives must agree with the nouns they modify in both gender and number. This means that the ending of an adjective will change based on the gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) of the noun it describes.

Gender Agreement

There are two main types of adjectives in Spanish, those that end in ‘-o’ and those that end in ‘-e’ or a consonant. The rules for gender agreement differ for each type:

  1. Adjectives ending in ‘-o’: These adjectives have a masculine and a feminine form. To make the adjective feminine, simply change the ‘-o’ ending to ‘-a’. Example:
  • Masculine: El libro pequeño (The small book)
  • Feminine: La mesa pequeña (The small table)
  1. Adjectives ending in ‘-e’ or a consonant: These adjectives have a single form for both masculine and feminine nouns. Example:
  • Masculine: El perro inteligente (The intelligent dog)
  • Feminine: La mujer inteligente (The intelligent woman)

Number Agreement

Adjectives in Spanish must also agree with the nouns they describe in terms of number. To make an adjective plural, follow these rules:

  1. Adjectives ending in a vowel: Simply add an ‘-s’ to the end of the adjective. Example:
  • Singular: El coche rápido (The fast car)
  • Plural: Los coches rápidos (The fast cars)
  1. Adjectives ending in a consonant: Add an ‘-es’ to the end of the adjective. Example:
  • Singular: La ciudad moderna (The modern city)
  • Plural: Las ciudades modernes (The modern cities)

Spanish Adjective Placement

In Spanish, adjectives typically come after the noun they describe. However, there are some cases in which the adjective may come before the noun, often to emphasize or add a poetic touch to the language.

Adjectives After Nouns

Most of the time, adjectives are placed after the noun they modify. This is the standard order and is used in most everyday situations.


  • La casa grande (The big house)
  • Los zapatos negros (The black shoes)

Adjectives Before Nouns

In some cases, adjectives may be placed before the noun. This is less common and is often used for emphasis, poetic language, or to create a more subjective meaning.


  • El dulce sabor (The sweet taste)
  • Una antigua leyenda (An ancient legend)

Common Spanish Adjective Endings

There are several common adjective endings in Spanish that can help you identify and understand the meaning of adjectives more easily. Some of these include:

  1. -oso/-osa: Used to describe something that possesses a certain quality. Example:
  • Sabroso (Tasty)
  • Piedroso (Rocky)
  1. -al: Indicates a characteristic related to a noun. Example:
  • Personal (Personal)
  • Nacional (National)
  1. -ico/-ica: Used to describe a quality or characteristic. Example:
  • Atlético (Athletic)
  • Mágico (Magical)

Remember, adjectives must still agree with the nouns they modify in gender and number, even with these specific endings.


Mastering Spanish adjective endings is essential for achieving fluency in the language. By understanding the rules for gender and number agreement, as well as adjective placement and common endings, you will be well on your way to effectively using adjectives in your Spanish communication. Keep practicing and expanding your vocabulary, and your skills will continue to grow!

Grammar Theory

Grammar Exercises

Learn a Language With AI 5x Faster

TalkPal is AI-powered language tutor. Learn 57+ languages 5x faster with revolutionary technology.