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Legal and Official Terms in Russian

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Learning a new language involves diving into various realms of vocabulary, including legal and official terms, which are essential for understanding governmental documents, legal proceedings, and official communication in a particular country. Here are several Russian legal and official terms and their definitions, along with example sentences for each.

Закон (Zakon) – Law. This term refers to a system of rules that are created and enforced through governmental or social institutions to regulate behavior.
В России был принят новый закон. – A new law was adopted in Russia.

Договор (Dogovor) – Contract or agreement. This is a written or spoken agreement, especially one concerning employment, sales, or tenancy, that is intended to be enforceable by law.
Мы подписали договор аренды на год. – We signed a rental agreement for one year.

Суд (Sud) – Court. Refers to the governmental institution with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters.
Дело будет рассматриваться в арбитражном суде. – The case will be considered in the arbitration court.

Иск (Isk) – Lawsuit. A claim or dispute brought to a court of law for adjudication.
Компания подала иск против бывшего сотрудника. – The company filed a lawsuit against the former employee.

Прокурор (Prokuror) – Prosecutor. An official who conducts criminal prosecutions on behalf of the state.
Прокурор потребовал максимальное наказание. – The prosecutor demanded the maximum penalty.

Адвокат (Advokat) – Lawyer or attorney. A person who practices law, as an advocate, barrister, attorney, counselor, or solicitor or chartered legal executive.
Я нанял адвоката для защиты своих интересов. – I hired a lawyer to defend my interests.

Право (Pravo) – Right. A moral or legal entitlement to have or do something.
У каждого человека есть право на справедливый суд. – Every person has the right to a fair trial.

Обвиняемый (Obvinyaemyi) – Defendant or accused. A person, company, or institution accused in a court of law.
Обвиняемый заявил, что не признает вину. – The defendant stated that he does not admit guilt.

Заседание (Zasedanie) – Hearing or session. An official meeting or session, as of a legislative or judicial body, to conduct its business.
Следующее заседание суда состоится в понедельник. – The next court session will take place on Monday.

Юрист (Yurist) – Legal expert or jurist. A professional who is expert in law, particularly one who advises clients on legal matters and may represent them in court.
Юрист посоветовал мне не подписывать этот документ без дополнительных разъяснений. – The legal expert advised me not to sign this document without further clarification.

Свидетель (Svidetel) – Witness. Someone who sees an event, typically a crime or accident, take place.
Свидетель рассказал полиции все, что видел. – The witness told the police everything he saw.

Постановление (Postanovlenie) – Decree or resolution. An official order issued by a legal authority.
Постановление суда вступило в законную силу. – The court’s decree has come into legal force.

Заявление (Zayavlenie) – Application or statement. A formal declaration or announcement, especially one that expresses intent or a claim.
Я подал заявление о выдаче нового паспорта. – I filed an application for a new passport.

Understanding and using these terms correctly can significantly aid any student of Russian in grasping the complexities of the language as it relates to law and government. Whether you’re reading the news, studying for a career in legal professions, or simply expanding your vocabulary, knowing these terms is invaluable for a richer understanding of the Russian language and culture.

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