Expressions for Describing Weather Conditions in Welsh

Welsh, or Cymraeg, is a Celtic language spoken primarily in Wales by about 562,000 people as a first language, and by another 150,000 people in England and elsewhere as a second language. Among the many fascinating aspects of this language is its unique and descriptive way of talking about the weather. Learning to describe weather conditions in Welsh not only enhances your vocabulary but also gives you a deeper insight into Welsh culture and daily conversations.

Basic Weather Terms

Before delving into complex phrases, let’s start with some basic terms that are essential when talking about the weather in Welsh.

Tywydd (weather) is a crucial word that will form the foundation of most weather-related discussions. For example, to ask “What is the weather like?” you would say, “Sut mae’r tywydd?”

Haul (sun) and glaw (rain) are two other fundamental terms. On a sunny day, you might say, “Mae’n heulog.” (It’s sunny.), while on a rainy day, you might comment, “Mae’n bwrw glaw.” (It’s raining.)

If you want to discuss temperature, tymheredd is the word you need. A chilly day could be described with, “Mae’n oer.” (It’s cold.), whereas a warm day might be, “Mae’n gynnes.” (It’s warm.)

Describing Different Types of Rain

Rain is a common weather phenomenon in Wales, and the Welsh language has various ways to describe its different forms.

A light rain can be described as “glaw man”, meaning fine rain. You might hear someone say, “Mae’n bwrw glaw man.” (It’s drizzling.)

On the other hand, a heavy rain is termed “glaw trwm.” During a storm, someone might say, “Mae hi’n bwrw glaw trwm.” (It’s pouring.)

For misty rains or drizzles, the Welsh use “niwl”. You could describe a foggy morning by saying, “Mae’n niwlog.” (It’s foggy.)

Discussing Wind and Storms

Wind, or gwynt, also plays a significant role in Welsh weather descriptions. A breezy day is referred to as “awyrennog”, and one might say, “Mae’n wyntog heddiw.” (It’s windy today.)

When the wind is particularly strong, you might hear, “Mae’r gwynt yn chwythu’n gryf.” (The wind is blowing strong.)

In cases of a storm, the term “storm” is used just like in English, but pronounced differently. To say, “There is a storm,” you would say, “Mae storm ar y ffordd.” (There is a storm on the way.)

Snow and Ice

Snow (eira) and ice () are common in the Welsh winters. A snowy day can be described with, “Mae’n bwrw eira.” (It’s snowing.)

When describing an icy day, particularly referring to the condition of roads or paths, you might say, “Mae’r llwybrau’n llithrig oherwydd yr iâ.” (The paths are slippery because of the ice.)

Seasonal and Time-Specific Descriptions

Welsh also has expressions that are specific to certain times of the day or seasons. For example, a dewy morning might be described as, “Mae’n wlyb gyda gwlith y bore.” (It’s wet with morning dew.)

In autumn, you might describe the weather as, “Mae’n hydrefol.” (It’s autumnal.), indicating the overall ambiance and typical weather of the season.

Using Weather to Describe Moods

Interestingly, Welsh often uses weather conditions metaphorically to describe moods. For example, a cheerful mood might be expressed as, “Mae hi’n heulog yn fy nghalon.” (It’s sunny in my heart.), while a gloomy mood could be described as, “Mae cymylau duon yn fy meddwl.” (There are dark clouds in my mind.)


Understanding and using these expressions can significantly enhance your ability to communicate effectively in Welsh. Whether you’re discussing the weather literally or using it metaphorically to express feelings, these phrases offer a window into the poetic nature of the Welsh language and its deep connection with the natural world. Embrace these expressions in your conversations and enjoy the rich linguistic culture of Wales.

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